American Philosophical Association Eastern- Virtual Issue 2019

By Elizabeth Levine

 

In January 2019, the American Philosophical Association will hold its Eastern meeting in New York City. In honor of the One Hundred and Fifteenth meeting, Wiley has compiled a free collection of the top cited articles in Philosophy from our publishing partners journals. This collection can be read by anyone until March 31st 2019.

Journal of Applied Philosophy

Resolving the Tensions Between White People’s Active Investment in Racial Inequality and White Ignorance: A Response to Marzia Milazzo

Theoria

Why Do Irrational Beliefs Mimic Science? The Cultural Evolution of Pseudoscience

Ratio

A Brief Argument For Consciousness Without Access

Mind & Language

The epistemic innocence of clinical memory distortions

Metaphilosophy

On the Philosophy of Bitcoin/Blockchain Technology: Is it a Chaotic, Complex System?

Dialetica

A Demonstration of the Causal Power of Absences

Bioethics

Empathy, social media, and directed altruistic living organ donation

Journal of Philosophy of Education

Can ‘Philosophy for Children’ Improve Primary School Attainment?

Hastings Center Report

Sequencing Newborns: A Call for Nuanced Use of Genomic Technologies

Hypatia

Tracking Privilege‐Preserving Epistemic Pushback in Feminist and Critical Race Philosophy Classes

History & Theory

THE ALLURE OF DARK TIMES: MAX WEBER, POLITICS, AND THE CRISIS OF HISTORICISM

Philosophical Issues

LOGICAL NIHILISM: COULD THERE BE NO LOGIC?*

Nous

Gettier Across Cultures

Philosophical Forum

Big Data and Transcendental Philosophy

The Southern Journal of Philosophy

Thinking in the Zone: The Expert Mind in Action

Zygon: Journal of Religion and Science

THE HUMAN BEING SHAPING AND TRANSCENDING ITSELF: WRITTEN LANGUAGE, BRAIN, AND CULTURE

Philosophy & Public Affairs

Future People, the Non‐Identity Problem, and Person‐Affecting Principles

Journal of Social Philosophy

Modeling Inclusive Pedagogy: Five Approaches

Analytic Philosophy

Real Definition

Journal of Chinese Philosophy

CONFUCIANISM AND UBUNTU: REFLECTIONS ON A DIALOGUE BETWEEN CHINESE AND AFRICAN TRADITIONS

 

 

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World Congress of Philosophy Virtual Issue

By Bailey Morrison

Beginning August 13, philosophers from around the globe will gather in Beijing at the World Congress of Philosophy. Organized every five years by the International Federation of Philosophical Societies (FISP), the congress addresses pressing philosophical issues. This year’s theme, “Learning to be Human” discusses the intricacies of humanity. Topics to be addressed include education,  the environment, social learning, and governmental policy. The list below features articles that hit on some of the key subjects expected to be addressed.

education

Play’s the Thing: Wherein We Find How Learning Can Begin

Neuromedia and the Epistemology of Education

Brokering to support participation of disadvantaged families in early childhood education

Rethinking Vulnerability in the Age of Anthropocene: Toward Ecologizing Education

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A Confucian‐Kantian Response to Environmental Eco‐Centrism on Animal Equality

Mill’s Philosophy of Science

Beyond Eschatology: Environmental Pessimism and the Future of Human Hoping

Environmental Responsibility

 

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Joint Action and Plural Self‐Consciousness

Imitation from a joint action perspective

Repair: The Interface Between Interaction and Cognition

Modern moral and political philosophy

politics

The Inner Life of Democracy: Learning in Deliberation between the Police and Communities of Color

Engagement, passivity and detachment: 16‐year‐old students’ conceptions of politics and the relationship between people and politics

Lying in Politics: Fake News, Alternative Facts, and the Challenges for Deliberative Civics Education

A retrieval of historicism: Frank Ankersmit’s philosophy of history and politics 

The Journal of Philosophy of Education: Opening the Archive

Celebrating 50 years of research from Journal of Philosophy of Education

JOPE VSI Banner AdHow to celebrate the 50th birthday of the Journal of Philosophy of Education (JOPE)? We made a start by looking though every print copy of every Issue of the Journal’s 50 volumes and reading many papers.

We discovered papers way ahead of their time, as well as long threads of argument which we followed through many Issues, a 20-year-old page-turner of a paper on assessment, Alasdair MacIntyre in conversation about education. We had some surprises. Going by how often his name appears in titles and abstracts of papers, Nietzsche is, after Dewey, the philosopher most frequently referred to by contributors. In the first 10 volumes 50% of the Issues had no women contributors. By the most recent decade this had dwindled to 3%. How had that happened? We also looked for the most popular and least popular topics and were amazed at what we discovered.

It soon dawned on us that the very best way of marking our 50th anniversary was to offer readers something like the experience we ourselves had been having. Our Collection, The Journal 1966- 2016, is intended to do that. The papers it contains are not necessarily the best, the most cited or the most popular, but ones chosen for their power to introduce readers to the wealth of material in this rich Archive. The 25 papers each have a Note, called Context and Connections, with hyperlinks to help readers, using the Wiley Online Library Tools, to explore their research and teaching interests in the Archive. An Editorial elaborates on insights we gained from working in the Archive, as well as sketching a brief history of JOPE.

But this Virtual Special Issue is not just a collection of papers with notes attached. In Video Interviews two former Editors, Richard Smith and Paul Standish, and a current Assistant Editor, Doret de Ruyter, talk about how they see JOPE and its future. Judith Suissa, another Assistant Editor, interviews John White, whose first contribution was in 1970 and his most recent in 2016. Morwenna Griffiths comments on JOPE and gender and the PESGB as a place for women to do philosophy. Michael Hand introduces the Impact pamphlet series. Darren Chetty, Andrea English and Mary Healy talk about presenting papers at the PESGB Annual Conference – where many JOPE papers start their life – and their experience of submitting papers to JOPE. And we, as co-editors, talk about how we made our selection and speculate about how we think readers might use it.

-Patricia White and Bob Davis, JOPE


Guest Bloggers:

Patricia White - Branded Headshot
Patricia White, JOPE Editorial Board Member

 

Bob Davis - Branded Headshot
Bob Davis, JOPE Editor

 

The first ever #WileyHumanitiesFest Has Begun

The first ever Wiley Humanities Festival has begun! Visit http://www.wileyhumanitiesfest.com to see the lineup and experience the festival.

The first ever Wiley Humanities Festival has begun! Visit www.wileyhumanitiesfest.com to see the lineup and experience the festival.

wiley humanities festival
Attend the online Wiley Humanities Festival September 8 to 9, 2016!

We’ll be giving away many prizes throughout the event, so be sure to share with friends using #WileyHumanitiesFest on Twitter and Facebook, and comment extensively on the festival site.

Find out why thought leaders in philosophy like David S. Oderberg (Editor of Ratio), Sally Scholz (Editor of Hypatia), Willem B. Drees (Editor of Zygon: Journal of Religion and Sciences), Chris Higgins (Editor of Educational Theory), Ethan Kleinberg (Editor of History and Theory), Clara Fischer and Shelley Park (Guest Editors of upcoming special issues of Hypatia) find value in the humanities, and what they say is next for philosophy.

Are Our Brains Bayesian?

Significance MagazineIn a fascinating article published in Significance, author Robert Bain delves into the arguments for and against viewing human judgements and decisions in terms of Bayesian inference. We are grateful to Significance and the editor, Brian Tarran, for permission to publish the excerpt below. 


The human brain is made up of 90 billion neurons connected by more than 100 trillion synapses. It has been described as the most complicated thing in the world, but brain scientists say that is wrong: they think it is the most complicated thing in the known universe. Little wonder, then, that scientists have such trouble working out how our brain actually works. Not in a mechanical sense: we know, roughly speaking, how different areas of the brain control different aspects of our bodies and our emotions, and how these distinct regions interact. The questions that are more difficult to answer relate to the complex decision-making processes each of us experiences: how do we form beliefs, assess evidence, make judgments, and decide on a course of action?

Figuring that out would be a great achievement, in and of itself. But this has practical applications, too, not least for those artificial intelligence (AI) researchers who are looking to transpose the subtlety and adaptability of human thought from biological “wetware” to computing hardware.

In looking to replicate aspects of human cognition, AI researchers have made use of algorithms that learn from data through a process known as Bayesian inference. Bayesian inference is a method of updating beliefs in the light of new evidence, with the strength of those beliefs captured using probabilities. As such, it differs from frequentist inference, which focuses on how frequently we might expect to observe a given set of events under specific conditions.

In the field of AI, Bayesian inference has been found to be effective at helping machines approximate some human abilities, such as image recognition. But are there grounds for believing that this is how human thought processes work more generally? Do our beliefs, judgments, and decisions follow the rules of Bayesian inference?

Pros

For the clearest evidence of Bayesian reasoning in the brain, we must look past the high-level cognitive processes that govern how we think and assess evidence, and consider the unconscious processes that control perception and movement.

Professor Daniel Wolpert of the University of Cambridge’s neuroscience research centre believes we have our Bayesian brains to thank for allowing us to move our bodies gracefully and efficiently – by making reliable, quick-fire predictions about the result of every movement we make. Wolpert, who has conducted a number of studies on how people control their movements, believes that as we go through life our brains gather statistics for different movement tasks, and combine these in a Bayesian fashion with sensory data, together with estimates of the reliability of that data. “We really are Bayesian inference machines,” he says.

Other researchers have found indications of Bayesianism in higher-level cognition. A 2006 study by Tom Griffiths of the University of California, Berkeley, and Josh Tenenbaum of MIT asked people to make predictions of how long people would live, how much money films would make, and how long politicians would last in office. The only data they were given to work with was the running total so far: current age, money made so far, and years served in office to date. People’s predictions, the researchers found, were very close to those derived from Bayesian calculations.

Cons

Before we accept the Bayesian brain hypothesis wholeheartedly, there are a number of strong counter-arguments. For starters, it is fairly easy to come up with probability puzzles that should yield to Bayesian methods, but that regularly leave many people flummoxed. For instance, many people will tell you that if you toss a series of coins, getting all heads or all tails is less likely than getting, for instance, tails–tails–heads–tails–heads. It is not and Bayes’ theorem shows why: as the coin tosses are independent, there is no reason to expect one sequence is more likely than another.

“There’s considerable evidence that most people are dismally non-Bayesian when performing reasoning,” says Robert Matthews of Aston University, Birmingham, and author of Chancing It, about the challenges of probabilistic reasoning. “For example, people typically ignore base-rate effects and overlook the need to know both false positive and false negative rates when assessing predictive or diagnostic tests.”

Diagnostic test accuracy explained

How is it that a diagnostic test that claims to be 99% accurate can still give a wrong diagnosis 50% of the time? In testing for a rare condition, we scan 10 000 people. Only 1% (100 people) have the condition; 9900 do not. Of the 100 people who do have the disease, a 99% accurate test will detect 99 of the true cases, leaving one false negative. But a 99% accurate test will also produce false positives at the rate of 1%. So, of the 9900 people who do not have the condition, 1% (99 people) will be told erroneously that they do have it. The total number of positive tests is therefore 198, of which only half are genuine. Thus the probability that a positive test result from this “99% accurate” test is a true positive is only 50%.

Life’s hard problems

All in all, that is quite a bit of evidence in favour of the argument that our brains are non-Bayesian. But do not forget that we are dealing with the most complicated thing in the known universe, and these fascinating quirks and imperfections do not give a complete picture of how we think.

Eric Mandelbaum, a philosopher and cognitive scientist at the City University of New York’s Baruch College, says this kind of irrationality “is most striking because it arises against a backdrop of our extreme competence. For every heuristics-and-biases study that shows that we, for instance, cannot update base rates correctly, one can find instances where people do update correctly.”

So while our well-documented flaws may shed light on the limits of our capacity for probabilistic analysis, we should not write off the brain’s statistical abilities just yet. Perhaps what our failings really reveal is that life is full of really hard problems, which our brains must try and solve in a state of uncertainty and constant change, with scant information and no time.


We hope you enjoyed this excerpt. Go here to read the full article – free to access through August!


About the Author

Robert Bain

Robert Bain is a freelance journalist. He was previously editor of Lux magazine and deputy editor of Research magazine.

 

 

 


About the Magazine

Significance is published on behalf of the Royal Statistical Society and is a bimonthly magazine for anyone interested in statistics and the analysis and interpretation of data. Its aim is to communicate and demonstrate in an entertaining, thought-provoking and non-technical way the practical use of statistics in all walks of life and to show informatively and authoritatively how statistics benefit society.

Let’s Recap LGBTQ Pride Month 2016

With the final day of June, LGBTQ Pride Month comes to a close for 2016. The Wiley Blackwell Team hopes to serve the LGBTQ Community by continuing the much needed discussion. As a reminder, all of the curated research collections for Pride Month will be freely available through July 31.

With the final day of June, LGBTQ Pride Month comes to a close for 2016. Just last year, same-sex marriage was federally legalized in the United States. In sharp contrast, this year’s pride month was shadowed by the devastation of the Orlando shootings. We were all painfully reminded that despite great strides made by the LGBTQ community, hate and inequality still run rampant. Through this grim reality, the outpour of love and support that emerged from such a violent act of hate is a testament of hope and strength.

LGBTQ Pride 2016

Thanks for visiting us each week this month to continue the necessary discussion on LGBTQ rights and issues. As a reminder, all of the curated research collections for Pride Month will be freely available through July 31.


LGBTQ Pride Month in the News

LGBT Rights in National Constitutions – would they make a difference in the US and

OrlandoNightSkyline
The OneOrlando Fund is an official fund to provide support and relief to the Pulse nghtclub victims and their families.

globally? Huffington Post

 

‘They Were So Beautiful’: Remembering Those Murdered In Orlando NPR

Pope Francis: Catholics Should Apologize to the LGBT Community Advocate

Stonewall Inn Recognized as National Monument to Gay Rights The Wall Street Journal

 

White_House_rainbow_colors_to_celebrate_June_2015_SCOTUS_same-sex_marriage_ruling
June 26, 2015 – White House lit with rainbow colors to celebrate SCOTUS same-sex marriage ruling.

Mapping the Rise of Anti-LGBT Legislation on the First Anniversary of Nationwide Marriage Equality The Atlantic’s CityLab

 

Charlotte Schools Set New Transgender Bathroom Policy The Wall Street Journal

NBA, WNBA Are First Pro Sports Leagues to March in NYC LGBT Pride Parade Rolling Stone

 


Pride on The Philosopher’s Eye

LGBTQ Rights
This collection explores the past, present, an future of LGBTQ law, politics, and activism which seeks to ensure effective change in social policy and legislation. Read more.
LGBT Family
This collection explores the complexities of social, ethical, and psychology themes of LGBTQ families and relationships, covering topics from sexual health to marriage equality. Read more.
People are people. And family is family.
Wiley Journal Publishing Manager Brian Giblin share a personal reflection on pride, identity, and coming out. Read more.
Trans Issues
Tackling complex issues that transgender and gender nonconforming people face, the collection covers topics such as cultural inclusion and representation, healthcare advocacy and treatment, institutional discrimination, violence, and many more. Read more.
stethoscope.jpg
Interview: Patient Practice for Transgender and Gender-Nonconforming Youth with Dr. Christine Aramburu Alegria. Listen now.
LGBT Awareness Banner
This collection focuses on Awareness and Education, covering a wide array of topics such as intersectionality, gender identity, and institutional inclusion. Read more.

Cheshire Calhoun wins Journal of Applied Philosophy 2015 Essay Prize

Congratulations to Dr. Cheshire Calhoun, winner of this year’s Journal of Applied Philosophy Essay Prize.

The Journal of Applied PhilosophyThe editors of the Journal of Applied Philosophy are pleased to announce that the winner of the 2015 essay prize is Cheshire Calhoun for her article, “Geographies of Meaningful Living“, published in the February 2015 issue.

The £1000 award is granted to the author of the best article published in that year’s volume. We offer Dr. Calhoun a hearty congratulations and are pleased to offer you free access to her winning article through the end of July.

About the Winner

Cheshire Calhoun
Cheshire Calhoun, winner of the Journal of Applied Philosophy 2015 Essay Prize

Currently, Dr. Cheshire Calhoun teaches philosophy at Arizona State University and is serving as chair of the American Philosophical Association (APA) board of officers. She previously edited feminist philosophy journal Hypatia, and was chair of the APA’s LGBT Committee and the Inclusiveness Committee.

The majority of her work falls within normative ethics, moral psychology, philosophy of emotion, feminist philosophy, and gay and lesbian philosophy.

To learn more about her prolific career and work, please visit her website.

 

 


About the Journal

The Journal of Applied Philosophy provides a unique forum for philosophical research which seeks to make a constructive contribution to problems of practical concern. Open to the expression of diverse viewpoints, the journal brings critical analysis to these areas and to the identification, justification and discussion of values of universal appeal. The journal covers a broad spectrum of issues in environment, medicine, science, policy, law, politics, economics and education. Go here to subscribe today.

Society for Applied Philosophy logo
The SAP’s new logo

The journal is run by the Society for Applied Philosophy. Founded in 1982, the society aims to promote philosophical study and research that has a direct bearing on areas of practical concern. To learn about the society’s work and how you can become a member, please visit its website.